Saturday, November 28, 2009

AURANGZEB (AD 1658-1707)

AURANGZEB (AD 1658-1707)

Aurangzeb ascended the throne with the title of Alamgir (Conqueror of the World). His reign can be divided into two equal periods of about 25 years: (i) from 1658-1681 during which time he concentrated on North India, and (it) from 1682-1707 when he went over to the Deccan. In 1661, Assam was captured by the Mughal governor of Bengal, Mir Jumla. After Mir Jurnla's death Aurangzeb appointed Shaista Khan as governor of Bengal. Shaista Khan fought against Arakanese pirates. He captured the island of Sandip in the Bay of Bengal. During Aurangzeb's reign, the Marathas had become very powerful under Shivaji. Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan against him but Shivaji defeated Shaista Khan.

This made Aurangzeb invite Shivaji to Agra. The meeting was not a happy one as Shivaji was taken prisoner. But Shivaji made good his escape, and won many forts back
from the Mughals. The Jats also rebelled against Aurangzeb in 1669 under the leadership of Gokul Jat. The Satnamis also revolted but were crushed by Aurangzeb in the end. Aurangzeb also had to deal with the Sikhs and had Guru Teg Bahadur put to death. This made his son Guru Govind Singh fight the Mughals till he died in 1708. Aurangzeb's religious policy made many enemies and the Rajputs were no exception. The Rajputs revolted against him which proved very harmful for him.

Aurangzeb set out for the Deccan in 1682 and spent 26 years of his life there. From Ahmadnagar, he conquered Bijapur in 1686 and besieged Golconda in 1687 and annexed it. But the Marathas never allowed Aurangzeb to rest in peace. He was not able to crush the Marathas. He died in 1707 AD and was buried near Daulatabad near the grave of Shaikh Jail-ul-Haq. Thus ended the life of Aurangzeb whom J.N. Sarkar described the "greatest of the Great Mughals save one". During his reign, the M~ghal empire reached its territorial climax, stretching from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.

1 comment:

  1. It is nice to read but it needs elaboration.Thanks Mr S Bhaskar