NINE JEWELS (NAv-RATNAS) AT AKBAR'S COURT
Following the footsteps of Chandragupta Vlkramaditya of the Gupta period, Akbar maintained a court of nine distin. guished persons who were known as nine jewels or navratnas.
(i) Birbal A brahman of Kalpi, Birbal is known for his gift of humour and wits. His original name was Mahesh Dass. He was in charge of administration of justice at the royal court. He died fighting with the Yousuf-zai tribe on the north-west frontier of India.
(ii) Todar Mal He is known for his expertise in land revenue matters. Starting his career under Sher Shah, he evolved a land revenue system which was followed not only by Sher Shah and Akbar but also by the Marathas.
(iii) Tansen Born at Gwalior, Tansen was a court singer of
Akbar. He is known as Geet SamTat.
(iv) Abul Fazal A profound thinker and writer, Abul Fazal is known for his books, Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari. Prince Salim's instigation led to his murder.
(v) Abdul Rahim Conferred the title of Khan-e-Khana by Akbar, Abdul Rahim was a celebrated Hindi scholar. He is remembered for Rahim Satsai (a collection of dohas). He was also a great scholar of Tufki (he translated 13aburnama into Turki) and Persian languages.
(vi) Raja Man Singh A greatRajput~eneral of Akbar, Man
Singh is credited with defeating Maharana Pratap, in the battle of Haldighati, and the Afghans.
(vii) Faizi A poet laureate of Akbar's court, Faizi is credited
with the translation of Leelawati into Persian.
(viii) Hamim Humam A very close friend of Akbar, Hamim Humam was the chief of royal school (pathasiila).
(ix) Shaikh Mubarak A sufi, Shaikh Mubarak was the brain behind Akbar's MahZAT or declaration which has been wrongly called a 'Decree of Infallibility'.