Saturday, November 28, 2009

JAHANGIR (AD 1605-1627)

JAHANGIR (AD 1605-1627)

Akbar's eldest and only surviving son, Salim, became king under the title of Nur-ud-din Mohammad Jahangir after the death of Akbar. He mostly lived in Lahore which he adorned with gardens and buildings. A few mont.hs after his accession, his eldest son Khusrau revolted against him. He left Agra and laid siege of Lahore. Jahangir personally went against him and defeated the rebellious prince. Though Khusrau was dealt with leniently, his supporters were severely punished. The Sikh Guru Arjun Dev who had given shelter to the prince was tortured and put to death. Khusrau died in 1621-22 at the instance of Prince Khurram (later Shah Jahan).

In 1611, Jahangir married Mehr-un-Nisa who was later known as 'Nur Jahan'. She was the daughter of Mirza Ghiyas Beg. Nur Jahan was an accomplished lady. She is said to have been the real power behind" the throne. She conferred high titles on her relatives, and her father was given the title of 'Itmad-ud-daula'.

Jahangir's first political success was against the Mewar Rana, Amar Singh (1615). In 1620, Prince Khurram con­quered Kangta. Jahangir followed the policy of his father with regard to' the Deccan. Ahmadnagar which had been partly conquered by Akbar declared its independence in 1611 under 'Malik Ambar. Jahangir sent his son Khurram against him. In 1617, Ahmadnagar fell and Khurram was rewarded with the title 'Shah Jahan'. But the Mughals could not establish their rule. Malik Ambar retracted from the treaty and, in his later attacks on Bijapur, Shah Jahan joined him, as he was in revolt against his father. In 1622, the Mughals lost Kandahar to the Iranian king, Shah Abbas. Nur Jahan's preference for Prince Shahryar to succeed Jahangir forced Shah Jahan to revolt against his father. Shah Jahan was defeated by Mahabat Khan at Bilochpur in 1623, but he escaped to Mandu. In 1625, a reconciliation took place between father and son. Jahangir died in 1627 and was buried at LahOfe. From his memoirs, Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri, we come to know that he was a mixture of opposites-a 'strange compound of cruelty and tenderness, of brutality and refinement, of justice and caprice. He was, like his father, li~eral in his religious outlook.

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