Sunday, November 29, 2009



Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a rapid decline of the empire followed. Bahadur Shah (1707-1712) who succeeded Aurangzeb had to face a serious revolt by the Sikhs led by Banda; the Sikhs, persecuted by Aurangzeb, sacked Sirhind. Though Bahadur Shah defeated Banda, the latter escaped from Lohagarh fort. Jahandar Shah (1712-1713) had a short­lived reign, being killed by Farruksiyar who ascended the throne in 1713. He was totally under the Sayyid brothers who have come to be known as 'King Makers'. His reign faced revolts from Rajputs, Jats and Sikhs. He was success­ful in his campaign against the Sikhs, and executed Banda Bahadur in 1716. Farruksiyar himself was murdered by the Sayyid brothers with Maratha help in 1719. The Sayyid brothers now put Muhammad Shah (1719-1748) on the throne. Ultimately these brothers were murdered by a conspiracy between the emperor and Chin Kilich Khan (Nizam-ul-Mulk). However, Chin Kilich Khan, disgusted by Muhammad Shah's incompetence, retired to the Deccan and made himself independent. Hyderabad, Avadh and Bengal established independent kingdoms.

NADIR SHAH'S INVASION It was in 1738-39 that the Mughal empire received a staggering blow at the hands of Nadir Shah, who had seized the throne of Persia in 1736 and later captured Qandhar from the Afghans. Finding a pretext that the Mughal emperor was giving shelter to Afghan refugees, he marched towards India. In 1739, he defeated the imperial army at Kamal near Panipat.
Muhammad Shah invited Nadir. Shah to the capital fOI negotiating a treaty. But due to al false rumour that Nadil Shah had been killed, the local people killed many Persiar soldiers.

The enraged Nadir Shah ordered a general mas sacre of the local population. Nadir Shah departed fron India with a huge booty which included the world famoUi Peacock throne made by Shah Jahan and the celebratec Koh-i-Noor Aiamond.

AHMAD SHAH ABDALI The weakness of the empin was obvious. The successors of Muhammad Shah were.n( better, and invited further invasions. Ahmad Shah Abdal had decIared himself ruler of Qandhar on Nadir Shah'! assassination in 1747. He invaded India in 1748 whie! proved a fiasco. In 1749 he defeated Muin-ul-Mulk, gOY ernor of Punjab. His third invasion took place in 1752. No\\ he got the submission of the states of Punjab and Sind. H~ invaded India for the fourth time in 1756 during the reigr of Alamgir II. In 1757 he entered Delhi and plundered thl whole region from Agra to Mathura.

In 1758 Raghunath Ra( the Maratha ruler appeared at Delhi at the call of flu Mughal ruler, which again was not liked by Abdali. He onCE again attacked India. At the third battle of Panipat in 1761 the armies of Abdali and the Marathas met and thl Marathas were completely routed. Abdali now nominatec Shah Alam II as emperor.
Bahadur Shah Zafar II (1827-1862) was the last of thE Mughal emperors.

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